Published: 08th March 2011
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Q1: What is Indian Money Market? Explain its functions.
~ The money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short-term funds.
~ Money market deals in funds and financial instrument having a maturity period of one day to one year.
~ The instruments in the money market are close substitutes for money as they are of short-term nature and highly liquid.
~ Money market is not a place (like the stock market). It is in fact, a mechanism undertaken by telephone.
~ Also, it is a collection of markets for several financial instruments such as call money market, commercial bill market, etc
~ The transactions in the money market are of high volume involving large amount. So, money market is dominated by a small number of large players.
~ Some of the important players in the money market are:
i) Government.
ii) Reserve Bank Of India.
iii) Discount and finance House of India.
iv) Banks
v) Financial Institution.
vi) Corporate firms.
vii) Mutual funds.
viii) Non-banking finance companies.
ix) Primary Dealers.
x) Securities Trading Corporation of India.
xi) Provident Funds.
xii) Public sector undertakings (PSU).
# The role of important players in the money market is discussed below:
~ The reserve Bank Of India is the most important player in the Indian Money Market.
~ The Organised money market comes under the direct regulation of the RBI.
~ The RBI operates in the money market is to ensure that the levels of liquidity and short-term interest rates are maintained at an optimum level so as to facilitate economic growth and price stability.
~ RBI also plays the role of a merchant banker to the government. It issues Treasury Bills and other Government Securities to raise funds for the government.
~ The RBI thus plays the role of an intermediary and regulator of the money market.
~ The Government is the most active player and the largest borrower in the money market.
~ It raises funds to make up the budget deficit.
~ The funds may be raised through the issue of Treasury Bills (with a maturity period of 91day/182day/364 days) and government securities.
~ Commercial Banks play an important role in the money market.
~ They undertake lending and borrowing of short term funds.
~ The collective operations of the banks on a day to day basis are very predominant and hence have a major impact and influence on the interest rate structure and the liquidity position.
~ Financial institutions also deal in the money market.
~ They undertake lending and borrowing of short-term funds.
~ They also lend money to banks by rediscounting Bills of Exchange.
~ Since, they transact in large volumes, they have a significant impact on the money market.
~ Corporate firms operate in the money market to raise short-term funds to meet their working capital requirements.
~ They issue commercial papers with a maturity period of 7 days to 1 year. These papers are issued at a discount and redeemed at face value on maturity.
~ These corporate firms use both organised and unorganised sectors of money market.
~ They Consist of Mutual Funds, Foreign Institutional Players, Insurance Firms, etc.
~ Their level of Participation depends on the regulations.
~ For instance the level of participation of the FIIs in the Indian money market is restricted to investment in Government Securities.
~ They are the intermediaries in the money market.
~ Discount Houses discount and rediscount commercial bill and Treasury Bills.
~ Primary Dealers were introduced by RBI for developing an active secondary market for Government securities.
~ They also underwrite Government Securities.
i) It facilitates economic development through provision of short term funds to industrial and other sectors.
ii) It provides a mechanism to achieve EQUILIBRIUM between DEMAND and SUPPLY of short-term funds.
iii) It facilitates effective implementation of the RBIs monetary policy.
iv) It provides ample avenues for short-term funds with fair returns to investors.
v) It instils financial discipline in commercial banks.
vi) It provides funds to meet short – term needs.
vii) It enhances capital formation through savings and investment.
viii) Short-term allocation of funds is made possible through inter-bank transactions and money market instruments.
ix) It helps in employment generation.
x) It provides funds to government to meet its deficits.
xi) It helps to control inflation.
Q2) Explain the structure of Indian Money Market?
~ Money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short-term funds and financial instruments.
~ The Indian money market comprises of:
~ While the organised sector comes under the direct regulation of RBI, the unorganised sector comprises of indigenous bankers, money lenders and unregulated non-banking financial institution.
~ The Indian money market consists of two main sectors:
~ The RBI is the apex institution that controls and monitors all the organisations in the organised sector.
~ Also, the organised money market is composed of various components / instruments that are highly liquid in nature.
~ The instruments traded are call money, treasury bills, commercial bills, certificate of deposits, commercial papers, repos etc.
~ The organised money market is further diversified with the establishment of the Discount and finance House of India, and Money market Mutual Funds.
# The instruments of the Organised money Market are:-
~ The call money market is the most important segment of the Indian money market. It is also called as inter-bank call money market.
~ Under call money market, funds are transacted on an over-night. Generally, banks rely on call money market where they raise funds for a single day.
~ The notice money market funds are transacted for a period of 2 to 14 days. The loans are to be repaid at the option of either the lender or the borrower.
~ The rate at which funds are borrowed / lent in this market is called the call money rate.
~ The call money rate (that depends on depends on demand for and supply of funds) is highly variable from day to day and from centre to centre.
~ The main participants in the call money market are commercial banks (excluding RRBs), co-operative banks and primary dealers.
~ The Discount and finance House of India and non-banking financial institutions like LIC, GIC, UTI, NABARD, etc, also participate in the call money market.
~ Call money markets are generally concentrated in large commercial centres like Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkotta and Ahmedabad.
~ The RBI intervenes in the call money market because it is highly sensitive and it is the indicator of liquidity position in the organised money market.
ii) Treasury Bills Market:
~ Treasury bills are short-term securities issued by the RBI on behalf of the Government of India.
~ Treasury bills are of three types: 91 day treasury bills, 182 days treasury bills and 364 day treasury bills.
~Since these bills are issued through auctions, interest rates on all types of treasury bills are determined by market forces.
~ Treasury bills are highly liquid and are readily available.
~ They give assured yields at a low transaction cost.
~ Treasury Bills are eligible for inclusion in the SLR.
~ Moreover, they have negligible capital depreciation.
~ Treasury Bills are available for a minimum amount of Rs 25000 and in multiples of RS 25000.
~ Treasury Bills are traded in the secondary market. Commercial banks, Primary Dealers, Mutual Funds, Corporates, and Financial Institutions, Provident / Pension funds and Insurance companies participate in the treasury Bills Market.
~ However Treasury Bills Market in India is very narrow and undeveloped.
~ A commercial bill is a short- term, negotiable, self –liquidating instrument drawn by the seller on the buyer for the value of goods delivered by him.
~ Such bills are called trade bills / bills of exchange and when they are accepted by banks, they are called commercial bills.
~ Generally the bill is payable at a future date (mostly, the maturity period is up to 90 days).
~ During this period, the seller may discount the bill with the banks. The commercial banks may rediscount these bills with FIs like EXIM bank, SIDBI, IDBI, etc.
~ Thus, commercial bills are very important for providing short-term credit to trade and commerce.
#Derivative usance promissory notes:
~ In order to eliminate movement of papers and to facilitate multiple rediscounting, the RBI introduced Derivative Usance promissory Notes (DPNs).
~ These are backed by commercial bills having usance period up to 90 days.
~ Since they are exempted from stamp duty, institutions can easily rediscount these bills.
~ Discount and finance House of India trade in DPNs drawn by commercial banks as well as DPNs sold to investors.
~ Certificates of Deposits are unsecured, negotiable promissory notes issued by commercial banks and development financial institutions.
~ CDs are marketable receipts of funds deposited in a bank for a fixed period at a specified rate of interest.
~ They are highly liquid and riskless money market instruments.
~ CDs were originally introduced in India to enable commercial banks to raise funds from the market.
~ The RBI has modified its original scheme for CDs. The following are the recent guidelines for the issue of CDs:-
#ELIGIBILITY: CDs can be issued by commercial banks (except RRBs and Local Area Banks) and financial institutions that have been permitted to raise short-term loans by RBI.
#AMOUNT: While banks can issue CDs depending on their requirements, financial institutions can issue CDs within the limit fixed by the RBI.
#MINIMUM SIZE: The minimum size of an issue for a single investor is Rs 1 lakh and it can be increased in multiples of Rs 1 lakh.
#DISCOUNT RATE: CDs are issued at a discount to face value. Bank / Financial institutions are free to determine discount rates on floating rate basis.
#INVESTORS: CDs are issued to individuals, corporations, companies, trusts, etc.
#TRANSFERABILITY: CDs are freely transferable by endorsements / delivery. However dematted CDs have to transferred as per specified procedures. There is no lock-in period for CDs.
#MATURITY: Commercial banks can issue CDs with a maturity period between 7 days to 1year. Financial institutions can issue CDs with a maturity period between 1 year to 3 years.
#RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: CDs are subject to CRR and SLR since banks have to report CDs to RBI.
#LOANS / BUY-BACK: Commercial banks / FIs cannot give loans against CDs. Similarly, they cannot buy-back their own CDs before maturity period.
#FORMAT: Banks /FIs should issue CDs only in the dematerialized form. However, investors have the option to seek CDs in physical form.
~ Due to absence of a well-developed secondary market in CDs, the size of CD market in India is quite small.
~ Commercial paper is an unsecured, highly liquid money market instrument in the form of a promissory note / a dematerialised form through any of the depositories registered with SEBI.
~ It has fixed maturity whereby the purchaser is promised a fixed amount at a future date.
~ Commercial paper are issued by leading nationally reputed manufacturing and finance companies (public / private sector).
~ They are issued on a discount to face value.
~ Commercial papers are issued (by corporates / primary dealers / all India financial institutions) on the following conditions:
a) The tangible net worth of the issuing company should not be less than RS 4 crores.
b) The working capital limit of the company has been sanctioned by banks / financial institution.
c) The borrowal a/c of the company is rated as a standard asset by banks / financial institutions.
~ All eligible participants should have a minimum rating P2 from CRISIL.
~ Commercial Papers have maturity period between 7days and 1year from the date of issue.
~ CPs are issued in denominations of Rs 5 lakhs (minimum) or multiples of Rs 5 lakhs.
~ Individuals, banks, corporate bodies, NRIs and FIIs can invest in commercial papers.
~ Every issuer must appoint an IPA (Issuing and Paying Agent) for issuance of commercial papers. Only a scheduled commercial bank can act as an IPA.
~ The RBI achieves the function of maintaining liquidity in the money market through REPOS / REVERSE REPOS.
~ The repo / reverse repo is a very important money market instrument to facilitate short-term liquidity adjustment among banks, financial institutions and other money market players.
~ A repo / reverse repo is a transaction in which two parties agree to sell and repurchase the same security at a mutually decided future date and price.
~ From the seller’s point of view, the transaction is called a repo, whereby the seller gets immediate funds by selling the securities with an agreement to repurchase the same at a future date.
~ Similarly, from the buyer’s point of view, the transaction is called a reverse repo, whereby the purchaser buys the securities with an agreement to resell the same at a future date.
~ The RBI, commercial banks and primary Dealers deal in the repos and reverse repo transactions.
~ The financial institutions can deal only in the reverse repo transactions i.e. they are allowed only to lend money through reverse repos to the RBI, other banks and Primary dealers.
~ The maturity date varies from 1 day to 14 days.
~ The two types of repos are:
^ Inter-bank repos (the transaction takes place between banks and DFHI).
^ RBI repos (The repos / reverse repos are undertaken between banks and the RBI to stabilize and maintain liquidity in the market).
~ Repos and Reverse Repos are used for following purposes:-
^ For injection / absorption of liquidity.
^ To create an equilibrium between the demand for and supply of short-term funds.
^ To borrow securities to meet SLR requirements.
^ To increase returns on funds.
^ To meet shortfall in cash positions.
~ The Discount and Finance House of India is jointly owned by the RBI, the public sector banks and all India financial institutions.
~ The DFHI helps in developing and stabilizing the money market by stimulating activity in the money market instruments and developing secondary market in those instruments.
~ The DFHI deals in treasury bills, commercial bills certificates of deposits, commercial papers, short term deposits, call money market and govt securities. It also participates in repo operations.
~ Thus, the DFHI has helped corporate entities, banks and financial institutions to invest their short-term surpluses in money market instruments.
~ The RBI introduced Money Market Mutual Funds to enable small investors to participate in the money market. Thus, MMMFs mobilises saving of mutual funds and invest them in such money market instruments that mature in less than one year.
~ The following are the important features of MMMFs:-
^ MMMFs can be set by scheduled commercial banks and public finance institutions.
^ Individuals, corporates, etc can invest in MMMFs.
^ The lock-in period has been reduced to 15 days.
^ MMMFs are under the regulation of SEBI.
^ NRIs and Overseas Corporate Bodies can invest in MMMFs (on a non-repatriation basis) floated by commercial banks / public sector financial institutions / private sector financial institutions. However, they do not need separate permission from the RBI.
^ MMMFs are ideal for investors seeking low-risk investment for short-term surpluses.
~The unorganised Indian money market mainly comprises of indigenous bankers, money lenders and unregulated non-banking financial intermediaries.
~Though they may exist in urban centres, their activities are mainly concentrated in rural areas. In fact, 36% of rural households depend on these for their financial requirement.
~ The main components of unorganised money market are:
~ These financial intermediaries operate as banks by receiving deposits, giving loans and dealing in ‘hundies’ (The hundi is a short term indigenous bill of exchange)
~ The rate of interest varies from market to market / bank to bank.
~ However they do not solely depend on deposits, they may use their own funds.
~ They are called by different names like ‘Kathawals’, ‘Saraf’, ‘Shroffs’,’Chettis’,etc.
~ They provide loans to trade and industry and agriculture.
~ The main advantages of indigenous bankers are simple and flexible operations, informal approach, personal contact, quick services and availability of timely funds.
~ However, they have their drawbacks like a very high rate of interest (18% to 36%), combining banking with trade, interest in non-banking activities like general merchants, brokers, etc.
~ Money lenders predominate in villages and they deal in the business of lending money.
~ Their interest rates are very high:
~ loans are given to agricultural labourers, marginal and small farmers, artisans, factory workers, etc for unproductive purposes.
~ Their services are prompt, informal and flexible.
# Chit funds:
^ They are saving institutions wherein members make regular contribution to the fund.
^ The fund is given to some member by bids / draws.
^ Chit funds are famous in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
^ They are mutual benefit funds as loans are given to members (from the deposits made by members themselves) at a reasonable rate of interest.
^ The loans are generally given for purposes like house construction / repairs.
^ Nidhis are prevalent in South India
# Loan companies:
^ Loan Companies (also called as finance companies) have capital in the form of borrowings, deposits or owned funds.
^ They attract deposits by offering high rate of interest and other incentives.
^ Loans are also given at a very high rate of interest (36% t0 48% p.a).
^ Traders, small-scale industries and self-employed people are the main participants.
~ They are found in all major urban markets, especially in cloth market, commodity market and grain market.
~ They are intermediaries between lenders and borrowers.
Q3: Explain the drawbacks of money market in India.
~ The money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short-term funds.
~ It deals in highly liquid financial instruments like call money, treasury bills, commercial bills, commercial paper, etc.
~ The RBI, Government, commercial banks, financial institutions, corporate firms, money lenders, etc are the important players in the Indian Money Market.
~ In spite of the various measures taken by the RBI to strengthen and deepen the money market, it still remains comparatively underdeveloped.
~ The following are some of the drawbacks of the Indian Money Market:-
~ Dichotomy i.e. existence of two markets (organised money market and unorganised money market) is a major defect of the Indian Money Market.
~ The unorganised money market comprises of indigenous bankers, money lenders, chit funds, nidhis, loan companies and finance brokers that do not come under the control and supervision of the RBI.
~ This unorganised sector is mainly concentrated in the rural areas and it does not differentiate between short term and long term finance and between the purposes of finance.
~This puts a limit on the RBI’s control over the money market.
~The RBI finds it difficult to integrate the organised and the unorganised money market.
~While the RBI can control and supervise the working of the organised sector effectively, the heterogeneous unorganised sector is out of RBI’s control.
~ There is no uniformity in the practices and operations of the unorganised money market.
~ Moreover, the interest rates in both the markets are also different.
~ Thus there is lack of integration in the Indian money market.
~ There is diversity in rates of interest in the Indian money market.
~ This multiplicity in the interest rates is due to lack of mobility of funds from one section of the money market to another.
~ The rates differ from institution to institution even for funds of the same duration.
~ Although the wide differences are being narrowed down, the existing differences do hamper the efficiency of the money market.
~ The existence of a well-organised bill market is essential for effective linking up various credit agencies.
~ It refers to a mechanism where bills of exchange are purchased and discounted by commercial banks / financial institutions.
~ The bill market is not yet developed in India due to the following reasons:
^ Banks keeping large amount of cash.
^ Preference for borrowing rather than discounting bills.
^ Overdependence on cash / cheque transactions.
^ High stamp duty on usance bill, etc.
~ The Indian money market is characterized by shortage of funds.
~ Various factors like inadequate banking facilities, low savings, lack of banking habits, existence of parallel economy, etc lead to shortage of funds.
~ Thus, demand for short-term funds far exceeds the supply. This results in high interest rate.
~ However now banks are flush with funds especially in urban area as people prefer to invest their money with banks rather than keeping them as deposits in the unorganised sector.
~ Since agriculture continues to play a major role in the Indian economy, farm operations do influence the demand for and supply of money.
~ Thus seasonal stringency of money and high interest rate during the busy season (November to June) is a striking feature of the Indian money market.
~ Also, there a wide fluctuations in the interest rates from one reason to another.
~ however, the RBI makes attempt to reduce the fluctuations by adding money into the money market during the busy season and withdrawing the funds during the slack season.
~ The Indian money market lacked adequate short-term paper instruments till 1985-86.
~ Only call money market and bill market existed.
~ Also there were no specialised dealers / brokers in the money market.
~ After 1985-86 the RBI Introduced new credit instruments in the market like CDs, CPs, MMMF, etc, but they are not yet fully developed in India.
~ There is poor banking system in the rural area due to the problems of overheads and maintenance of branches.
~ The commercial bank branches in rural area are only 40% of the total bank branches.
~ This also hampers the development of money market in India.
~ Faulty selection, lack of training, poor performance appraisal and faulty promotions result in inefficiency and corruption in the banking sector.
~ this adversely affects the success and performance of money market.
~ Thus the Indian money market is relatively less developed.
~ It has yet to acquire sufficient depth and width.
~ It cannot be compared with the developed money market in London and New York.
Q4: Discuss the various reforms taken by the RBI to strengthen the Indian money market?
~ Money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short-term funds and it deals in highly liquid financial instruments.
~ Indian Money Market comprises of unorganised and organised sectors that suffer from various drawbacks.
~ To overcome these drawbacks and to strengthen the market, the RBI has taken certain measures.
~ These measures are taken with a view to deeper and widen the Indian Money Market.
~ The following are the measures taken by the RBI to reform the Indian Money Market:-
~ The RBI has deregulated interest rates on deposits (except saving deposits) as well as on advances (except on export credit for a period of 180days before shipment).
~ The ceiling on the call money market, inter-bank short-term deposits, bill rediscounting and inter-bank participation has been removed and the rates are decided on market forces.
~ This ensures healthy competition and improves efficiency.
~ The RBI introduced new money market instruments to diversify the Indian money market and make it more effective.
~These include instruments such as 182-day treasury bill, 364-day treasury bill, commercial papers and certificates of deposits.
~Government, commercial banks, financial institutions and corporates can raise funds through these instruments.
~The RBI has also reduced the minimum investment amount and the minimum maturity period to expand the investor base for CDs and CPs.
~ The RBI has brought about considerable reduction in the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and the Statutory Liquidity Ratio.
1991 2010
CRR 15% 6%
SLR 38.5% 25%
~ This reduction improves the liquidity of banks and they can lend more money in the market.
~ The RBI has remitted the stamp duty on bills to make the bill market more popular in India.
~ In fact the bill market is not developed in India due to:
^ High discount rates
^ Over dependence on cash / cheque transactions.
^ Greater chances of dishonour.
~ The RBI introduced Repos in Dec 1992 and Reverse Repos in November 1996.
~ Repos and Reverse Repos bring about a balance in the short-term fluctuations in the liquidity existing in the money market.
~ Also, they provide a short-term avenue to the banks to park their surplus funds in the money market.

~ The RBI introduced LAF as an important tool for adjusting liquidity through REPOS and REVERSE REPOS.
~ This stabilizes short-term interest rates / call rates in the money market.
~ The RBI introduced Money Market Mutual Funds to enable small investors to participate in the money market. Thus, MMMFs mobilises saving of mutual funds and invest them in such money market instruments that mature in less than one year.
~ The following are the important features of MMMFs:-
^ MMMFs can be set by scheduled commercial banks and public finance institutions.
^ Individuals, corporate, etc can invest in MMMFs.
^ The lock-in period has been reduced to 15 days.
^ MMMFs are under the regulation of SEBI.
^ NRIs and Overseas Corporate Bodies can invest in MMMFs (on a non-repatriation basis) floated by commercial banks / public sector financial institutions / private sector financial institutions. However, they do not need separate permission from the RBI.
^ MMMFs are ideal for investors seeking low-risk investment for short-term surpluses.
^ Resource mobilized through this scheme can be invested in money market instruments as well as in rated corporate bonds / debentures with a maturity period up to 1 year.
~ In 1988, DFHI was set up jointly by the RBI, public sector banks and financial institutions.
~ The main reason for setting up DFHI was to impart liquidity to money market instruments and the development of active secondary market in these instruments.
~ The call and notice money market is an inter-bank market all over the world. So, the NARSHIMAM Committee recommended that we adopt the same policy in India.
~ However, the RBI had permitted the non-banking institutions to participate in the call and notice money market as lenders.
~ So the RBI is now taking steps to gradually reduce the role of non-banking institutions and transform the call and notice money market into a pure interbank money market.
~ A non-banking financial corporation (NBFC) cannot carry on any business of a financial institution (including acceptance of Public Deposit) without a Certificate of Registration (COR) from the RBI.
~ Companies accepting public deposits are required to comply with all the directions on public deposits, prudential norms and liquid assets.
~ They are obliged to submit regular returns to the RBI.
~ The Clearing Corporation of India LTD (CCIL) was registered under the Companies Act 1956, with the State Bank Of India as the chief promoter.
~ The CCIL clears all transactions in government securities and repos reported on the NDS (Negotiated Dealing System) of the RBI.
~ It also clears rupee / Us dollar foreign exchange spot and forward deals.
~ All trades in government securities below Rs 20 crores have to be settled through the CCIL.
~ Trades in government securities above 20 crores can be settled through the CCIL or the RBI.

~ For speedy recovery of debts, the RBI has set up Special Recovery Tribunals in 1993.
~ These provide legal assistance to banks to recover their dues.
~ In October 2004, the RBI reduced the minimum lock-in period for term deposits (below Rs 15 lakhs) from 15 days to 7 days.
~ Thus, the depositor can deposit money for 7 days and earn interest.
~ This increases the term-deposits with the banks.
~ Thus, the money can be effectively deployed in the market.

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